Chromosomes

Neural Network Fills In Data Gaps For Spatial Analysis Of Chromosomes

Computational methods used to fill in missing pixels in low-quality images or video also can help scientists provide missing information for how DNA is organized in the cell, computational biologists have shown. Filling in this missing information...
Related topics: Genetics, Science Videos, DNA

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Solving The Mystery Of Songbird Diversity

A strange chromosome may have provided fodder for the evolution of new traits -- Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
Related topics: Genetics

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Down Syndrome Carries Raised Risk Of Dementia By 55

MONDAY, Nov. 4, 2019 -- Most people with Down syndrome have dementia by age 55, a new study shows. People with Down syndrome are born with an extra copy of chromosome 21, which often results in developmental disabilities. Surviving to middle age...
Related topics: Dementia, Medical Research, Genetics

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Complex Cellular Machine Visualized To Yield New Insights In Cancer

Cellular machines that control chromosome structure, such as the RSC complex, are mutated in about one-fifth of all human cancers. Now, for the first time, scientists have developed a high-resolution visual map of this multi-protein machine,...
Related topics: Genetics, Proteins

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Scientists Extend Mice Lifespan 12% By Tweaking Telomeres

Using specially cultivated embryonic stem cells, scientists generated mice whose cells had extra-long telomeres.Telomeres are stretches of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that helps protect the genetic information inside.Lengthening telomeres in...
Related topics: Embryonic Stem Cells, Stem Cells, DNA, Genetics

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Defining The Centromere

Centromeres are the chromosomal domains at which the kinetochore, a protein complex required for the correct separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, is assembled. The incorporation of the histone variant CenH3 into centromeric...
Related topics: Proteins, Genetics

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How The Mouse X And Y Chromosomes Compete With Each Other To Control Offspring

New research presents the first demonstration of a specific difference in sperm function associated with sex ratio skewing.
Related topics: Genetics

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Changes In Chromosome Caps May Be A Marker For Tumor Aggression In Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Researchers at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center report that their study of tumor samples from people with the rare genetic syndrome neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) has uncovered novel molecular clues about which tumors are most likely to be...
Related topics: Genetics, Cancer, Medical Research, Oncology

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Longtime Dna Mystery Illuminated By Buttons And Flies

Biologists have uncovered an important clue in the longtime mystery of how long strands of DNA fold up to squeeze into microscopic cells, with each pair of chromosomes aligned to ensure perfect development.
Related topics: DNA, Genetics

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How Chromosomes Change Their Shape During Cell Differentiation

Scientists have provided an explanation of how chromosomes undergo structural changes during cell differentiation.
Related topics: Genetics

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How Chromosomes Change Their Shape During Cell Differentiation

The human genome is made up of 46 chromosomes, each of which has a length of about 100 to 200 million base pairs, the building blocks of the DNA double helix. Even during interphase, the period in between the cell division phases, chromosomes are...
Related topics: Genetics, DNA

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Chromosome Connectors Take Center Stage For Ornl Scientists Studying Poplar

An Oak Ridge National Laboratory team mapped the locations of centromeres in Populus trichocarpa (poplar), and a subsequent analysis on the Titan supercomputer showed that genetic variants in the DNA sequence at the centromere and the sequence of a...
Related topics: Genetics, DNA, Proteins

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Breakthrough In Sex-chromosome Regulation

Researchers have uncovered a chromosome-wide mechanism that keeps the gene expression of sex chromosomes in balance in our cells. The findings shed light on molecular reasons for early miscarriage and could be important for the emerging field of...
Related topics: Genetics

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How Newly Found Tension Sensor Plays Integral Role In Aligned Chromosome Partitioning

New research found that oncogene SET/TAF1, which was found to be a proto-oncogene of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), contributes to proper chromosome partitioning as a tension sensor. Additionally, abnormal SET protein disrupts tension sensor system...
Related topics: Genetics, Medical Research, Leukemia, Proteins

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Cellular Aging Is Linked To Structural Changes In The Brain

Telomeres are protective caps at the ends of chromosomes that become shorter with each cell division. If they become so short that the genes they protect could be damaged, the cell stops dividing and renewing. Consequently, the cell is increasingly...
Related topics: Genetics

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Key Similarities Discovered Between Human And Archaea Chromosomes

A study has revealed key similarities between chromosomes in humans and archaea. The work could advance use of the single-celled organism in research on cancer.
Related topics: Scientific Discoveries, Genetics

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Key Similarities Discovered Between Human And Archaea Chromosomes

A study led by researchers at Indiana University is the first to find similarities between the organization of chromosomes in humans and archaea. The discovery could support the use of archaea in research to understand human diseases related to...
Related topics: Scientific Discoveries, Genetics

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Like An Instruction Manual, The Genome Groups Genes Together For Convenience

Every living organism's cell has a complete copy of DNA, which is condensed tightly in chromosomes. Every time the cell needs to perform a function, it activates genes that open or close different regions in the DNA. Like following an instruction...
Related topics: Genetics, DNA

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Scientists Develop Technique To Reveal Epigenetic Features Of Cells In The Brain

Researchers combined two different analysis techniques into one method, to simultaneously analyze how chromosomes, along with their epigenetic features, are compacted inside of single human brain cells. The method, called single-nucleus methyl-3C...
Related topics: Genetics

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Role Of Cancer Protein Arid1a At Intersection Of Genome Stability And Tumor Suppression

The ARID1A tumor suppressor protein is required to maintain telomere cohesion and correct chromosome segregation after DNA replication. This finding indicates that ARID1A-mutated cells undergo gross genomic alterations that are not compatible with...
Related topics: Cancer, Oncology, Proteins, Genetics, DNA, Genomics

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