Chromosomes

Prenatal Screening Tests For Chromosome Abnormalities

Science has made remarkable advances in prenatal screening, but false positives and false negative results can occur, and there are ethical concerns.
Related topics: Genetics

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Virgin Birth Has Scientists Buzzing

Researchers have identified the single gene that determines how Cape honey bees reproduce without ever having sex. One gene, GB45239 on chromosome 11, is responsible for virgin births.
Related topics: Genetics

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New Technique Delivers Complete Dna Sequences Of Chromosomes Inherited From Mother And Father

An international team of scientists has shown that it is possible to disentangle the DNA sequences of the chromosomes inherited from the mother and the father, to create true diploid genomes from a single individual.
Related topics: DNA, Genetics

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How Small Chromosomes Compete With Big Ones For A Cell's Attention

From avocado plants to baker's yeast, humans to zebras, sexually reproducing organisms must create germ cells that contain half the number of chromosomes found in a typical body cell. When these germ cells—such as sperm and egg—come together...
Related topics: Genetics, Germs

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Finding More Chromosome Structures By Assuming Less

A technique developed by three RIKEN researchers can identify interaction patterns within human chromosomes that conventional methods miss. It will help produce new maps of our chromosomes and uncover the complex interactions in them.
Related topics: Genetics

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The Surprising Structure Of A Shrub Willow Sex Chromosome

Sex in plants can be befuddling. Most species are hermaphrodites, expressing both male and female gametes in one individual. But some, including shrub willow Salix purpurea, employ the evolutionary strategy we are far more familiar with:...
Related topics: Genetics

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The Reason More Men Die From Covid-19 May Lie In Their Chromosomes

Women have an inherent genetic advantage when it comes to fighting infectious diseases.
Related topics: Genetics

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The Reason More Men Die From Covid-19 May Lie In Their Chromosomes

Women have an inherent genetic advantage when it comes to fighting infectious diseases.
Related topics: Genetics

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Geneticists Discover Regulatory Mechanism Of Chromosome Inheritance

In the course of every single cell division, the genetic information on the chromosomes must be distributed equally between the newly developing daughter cells. The enzyme separase plays a decisive role in this process. Susanne Hellmuth and Olaf...
Related topics: Scientific Discoveries, Genetics

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Scientists Develop New Way To Identify The Sex Of Sea Turtle Hatchlings

Unlike humans, sea turtles and other reptiles like crocodiles do not have sex chromosomes. Their sex is defined during development by the incubation environment. In sea turtles, sex is determined by the nest's temperature: warmer temperatures...
Related topics: Genetics

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A Critical Enzyme For Sperm Formation Could Be A Target For Treating Male Infertility

While some of our body's cells divide in a matter of hours, the process of making sperm, meiosis, alone takes about 14 days from start to finish. And fully six of those days are spent in the stage known as the pachytene, when pairs of chromosomes...
Related topics: Enzymes, Infertility, Fertility, Genetics

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New Insights Into Evolution: Why Genes Appear To Move Around

Scientists have proposed an addition to the theory of evolution that can explain how and why genes move on chromosomes. The hypothesis is called the SNAP Hypothesis.
Related topics: Genetics

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Gps For Chromosomes: Reorganization Of The Genome During Development

The spatial arrangement of genetic material within the cell nucleus plays an important role in the development of an organism. A research team has developed a method to trace the chromosomes in individual cells. Using this method, they have now been...
Related topics: Genetics

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Cartilage Cells, Chromosomes And Dna Preserved In 75 Million-year-old Baby Duck-billed Dinosaur

This study is lead by Dr. Alida Bailleul (Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences) and Dr. Mary Schweitzer (North Carolina State University, NC Museum of Natural Sciences, Lund University and...
Related topics: Cartilage, Genetics, DNA, Dinosaurs, Paleontology, Museum

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How To Keep The Nucleus Clean

Cells are small factories that constantly produce protein and RNA molecules by decoding the genetic information stored in the DNA of their chromosomes. The first phase of this decoding, the transcription process, 'transcribes' the DNA code into RNA...
Related topics: Proteins, Genetics, DNA

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Unique Centromere Type Discovered In The European Dodder

Whenever the European dodder, Cuscuta europaea, is under scientific scrutiny, it usually is due to its lack of chloroplasts and its concomitant parasitic lifestyle. However, since the beginning of this year its chromosomes became the new centre of...
Related topics: Scientific Discoveries, Genetics

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Dasatinib Tops Imatinib For Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

TUESDAY, Jan. 21, 2020 -- Dasatinib is associated with improved survival for pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), according to a study published online Jan. 16 in JAMA Oncology. Shuhong Shen,...
Related topics: Leukemia, Genetics, Medical Research, Cancer, Oncology

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Low Doses Of Radiation Used In Medical Imaging Lead To Mutations In Cell Cultures

Common medical imaging procedures use low doses of radiation that are believed to be safe. A new study, however, finds that in human cell cultures, these doses create breaks that allow extra bits of DNA to integrate into the chromosome.
Related topics: Genetics, Medical Research, DNA

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Partnership With China Prompts Change In Care For High-risk Type Of Leukemia

Researchers from St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and the Chinese Children's Cancer Group led the first randomized, Phase III clinical trial comparing targeted therapies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) driven by the Philadelphia...
Related topics: Leukemia, Medical Research, Cancer, Oncology, Clinical Trials, Genetics

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Whitehead Institute Receives $10 Million To Study Sex Chromosomes’ Impact On Women’s Health

The Whitehead Institute has announced that Brit Jepson d’Arbeloff SM '61 — a pioneering engineer, advocate for women in science, and philanthropic leader — has made a $10 million gift to support research uncovering the biological consequences...
Related topics: Medical Research, Genetics

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